Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)

Center for Epidemiologic Studies from the National Institute of Mental Health

Distributed by Mapi Research Trust


Distributed by Mapi Research Trust

Basic description

Published in 1977 for the first time by Radloff LS.

In 1991, Radloff LS has tested the CES-D on a population of child and adolescents as well as Faulstich ME et al in 1986 (CES-DC: CES-D for Children).

Eaton WW et al. revised the CES-D in 2004 in order to match the criteria definied in DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000): CESD-R.

Since its first publication,  the CES-D has evolved through time and has been tested and modified a lot.


Center for Epidemiologic Studies from the National Institute of Mental Health

Public Domain
To assess the frequency and severity with which symptoms of depression are experienced in the general population
Therapeutic area
  • Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Therapeutic indication


Type of Clinical Outcome Assessment (COA)
  • pro PRO
Original language(s)
  • English for the USA
Bibliographic reference(s) of the original questionnaire

Center for Epidemiologic Studies, National Institute of Mental Health. Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health, 1971

Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement 1977; 1:385-401  (Abstract)

Hann D, Winter K, Jacobsen P. Measurement of depressive symptoms in cancer patients: Evaluation of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 1999;46:437-443 (PubMed Abstract)

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Contact and conditions of use


Center for Epidemiologic Studies from the National Institute of Mental Health

- National Institute of Mental Health
Office of Communications and Public Liaison
Information Resources and Inquiries Branch
6001 Executive Blvd.
Room 8184, MSC 9663
Bethesda, MD 20892-9663
Fax: +1 (301) 443-4279
E-mail: NIMHinfo@nih.gov

Contact information

Mapi Research Trust
27 rue de la Villette
69003 Lyon
Phone: +33 (0)4 72 13 66 66

Conditions of use

This questionnaire is in the public domain.

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Review copy

Examination copies can only be used for the limited purpose of examining the suitability of the Questionnaire for subsequent research and/or clinical use, and cannot be used in research or in clinical practice or distributed to others.
You are not authorized to modify, retype, translate, copy or otherwise duplicate the Questionnaire except with the further and prior written permission of Mapi Research Trust / the developers / copyright holders / distributors.


Original language(s)

  • English for the USA


The list of available translations is subject to constant changes and may not be exhaustive. It is provided for information only. Some recently produced translations may not be included in the list below yet. Please do check the status of available translations with Mapi Research Trust / the developers / copyright holders / distributors.

Also, the listed translations may not have undergone a full linguistic validation process and may require further work to be suitable for use in a study.


Afrikaans for South Africa*
Albanian for Albania*
Arabic for Egypt*
Bosnian for Bosnia*
Bosnian for Bosnia and Herzegovina*
Bulgarian for Bulgaria*
Cambodian for Cambodia
Cantonese for Hong Kong*
Croatian for Croatia*
Czech for Czech Republic*
Danish for Denmark*
Dutch for Belgium (Flemish)*
Dutch for the Netherlands*
English for Australia*
English for Canada*
English for New Zealand*
English for South Africa*
English for the UK*
Estonian for Estonia*
Finnish for Finland*
French for Belgium*
French for Canada*
French for France*
French for Switzerland*
German for Austria*
German for Germany*
German for Switzerland*
Greek for Greece*
Hebrew for Israel*
Hungarian for Hungary*
Italian for Italy*
Italian for Switzerland*
Japanese for Japan*
Korean for South Korea*
Latvian for Latvia*
Lithuanian for Lithuania*
Norwegian for Norway*
Polish for Poland*
Portuguese for Brazil*
Portuguese for Portugal*
Romanian for Romania*
Russian for Latvia*
Russian for Russia*
Serbian for Serbia*
Slovak for Slovakia*
Spanish for Argentina*
Spanish for Chile*
Spanish for Mexico*
Spanish for Puerto Rico*
Spanish for Spain*
Spanish for the USA*
Swedish for Sweden*
Turkish for Turkey*
* Performed by Mapi

Conditions to translate

In case further linguistic validation steps need to be performed on the translations produced by Mapi and provided by Mapi Research Trust, User shall work exclusively with Mapi. Each such upgraded version will be made available to third parties exclusively by Mapi Research Trust under the same conditions as described above.

More information on translations

Permission to use the Italian translation:

Giunti O.S. Organizzazioni Speciali
via Fra Paolo Sarpi 7/A
50136 Firenze
Phone: +39 055 6236 501
Fax: +39 055 669 446
Email: info@giuntios.it


Copy of the Dutch translation:

The list of items are published in Beekman, 1994.


Bibliographic reference of the Arabic translation:

Ghubash R, Daradkeh TK, Al Naseri KS, Al Bloushi NB, Al Daheri AM. The performance of the Center for Epidemiologic Study Depression Scale (CES-D) in an Arab female community. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2000 Winter;46(4):241-9


Bibliographic reference of the Chinese for Hong-Kong translation:

Cheung CK, Bagley C. Validating an American scale in Hong Kong: the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). J Psychol. 1998 Mar;132(2):169-86


Bibliographic references of the Dutch translation:

Beekman AT, Deeg DJ, Van Limbeek J, Braam AW, De Vries MZ, Van Tilburg W. Criterion validity of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D): results from a community-based sample of older subjects in The Netherlands. Psychol Med. 1997 Jan;27(1):231-5

Beekman AT, van Limbeek J, Deeg DJ, Wouters L, van Tilburg W. [A screening tool for depression in the elderly in the general population: the usefulness of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)] Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr. 1994 Jun;25(3):95-103. Dutch


Bibliographic reference of the Greek translation:

Fountoulakis KN, Iacovides A, Kleanthous S, Samolis S, Kaprinis SG, Sitzoglou K, Kaprinis GS, Bech P. Reliability, Validity and Psychometric Properties of the Greek Translation of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale. BMC Psychiatry. 2001;1(1):3


Bibliographic reference of the Italian translation:

Fava GA . Assessing depressive symptoms across cultures: Italian validation of the CES-D self-rating scale. J Clin Psychol 1983 Mar;39(2):249-51


Bibliographic reference of the Korean translation:

Cho MJ, Kim KH. Use of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale in Korea. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1998 May;186(5):304-10


Bibliographic reference of the Portuguese for Brazil translation:

da Silveira DX, Jorge MR. Reliability and factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression. Psychol Rep. 2002 Dec;91(3 Pt 1):865-74


Bibliographic reference of the Spanish translation:

Soler J, et al. [Validation study of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression of a Spanish population of patients with affective disorders]. Actas Luso Esp Neurol Psiquiatr Cienc Afines 1997 Jul;25(4):243-249



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