Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)

Johns MW

Distributed by Mapi Research Trust


Distributed by Mapi Research Trust

Basic description

Developed in 1990 and revised in 1997

A version for Adolescent has been created in 2015: ESS-CHAD

WEBINAR: An Author Webinar on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale - Recorded session available here!


Johns MW

ESS © MW Johns 1990-1997. Used under License.
To measure a subject's usual level of daytime sleepiness or average sleep propensity
Therapeutic area
  • Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms
Therapeutic indication


Type of Clinical Outcome Assessment (COA)
  • pro PRO
Original language(s)
  • English for Australia
Bibliographic reference(s) of the original questionnaire

Johns MW. The clinical assessment of daytime sleepiness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. In:Surgery for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, ed. Fabiani M. Kugler publications, The Hague, 2003: 283-295

Johns MW. Sensitivity and specificity of the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), the maintenance of wakefulness test and the epworth sleepiness scale: failure of the MSLT as a gold standard. J Sleep Res. 2000 Mar;9(1):5-11 (PubMed abstract)

Johns MW. Sleepiness in different situations measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep. 1994 Dec;17(8):703-10 (PubMed abstract)

Johns MW. Daytime sleepiness, snoring, and obstructive sleep apnea. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Chest. 1993 Jan;103(1):30-6 (PubMed abstract)

Johns MW. Reliability and factor analysis of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep. 1992 Aug;15(4):376-81 (PubMed abstract)

Johns MW. A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth sleepiness scale. Sleep. 1991 Dec;14(6):540-5 (PubMed abstract)

Access this questionnaire

Please proceed below

Login SIGN up free

Contact and conditions of use


Johns MW

Dr Murray W Johns
P.O. Box 232
Flinders, VIC 3121,
E-mail: mjohns@optalert.com
Murray W Johns  Publications (PubMed)

Dr Johns personal website

Contact information

Mapi Research Trust
27 rue de la Villette
69003 Lyon
Phone: +33 (0)4 72 13 66 66

Conditions of use

Students, physicians, clinical practice, not-funded academic users

You may access the questionnaire and/or its available translations directly (see tutorial). Should you not see the Download button, please contact us.

Funded academic users, healthcare organizations, commercial users & IT companies

Fees may apply to your project. Submit your request (see tutorial). Our PROVIDE team will get back to you with the needed information and license agreement in a timely manner.

Author Website(s)

Additional information on the ESS website

Review copy

Examination copies can only be used for the limited purpose of examining the suitability of the Questionnaire for subsequent research and/or clinical use, and cannot be used in research or in clinical practice or distributed to others.
You are not authorized to modify, retype, translate, copy or otherwise duplicate the Questionnaire except with the further and prior written permission of Mapi Research Trust / the developers / copyright holders / distributors.


Original language(s)

  • English for Australia


The list of available translations is subject to constant changes and may not be exhaustive. It is provided for information only. Some recently produced translations may not be included in the list below yet. Please do check the status of available translations with Mapi Research Trust / the developers / copyright holders / distributors.

Also, the listed translations may not have undergone a full linguistic validation process and may require further work to be suitable for use in a study.


Afrikaans for South Africa*
Albanian for Albania
Arabic for Egypt* L
Arabic for Israel*
Arabic for Saudi Arabia*
Armenian for Armenia
Bengali for India* L
Bosnian for Bosnia and Herzegovina* L
Bulgarian for Bulgaria* L
Catalan for Spain* L
Chinese for Hong Kong*
Chinese for Malaysia
Croatian for Croatia*
Czech for Czech Republic* L
Danish for Denmark*
Dutch for Belgium (Flemish)*
Dutch for the Netherlands* L
English for Canada*
English for Hong Kong*
English for India* L
English for Ireland*
English for Israel*
English for Malaysia* L
English for New Zealand* L
English for Singapore*
English for South Africa*
English for the UK* L
English for the USA*
Estonian for Estonia
Filipino for the Philippines*
Finnish for Finland* L
French for Belgium*
French for Canada*
French for France*
French for Switzerland* L
Georgian for Georgia* L
German for Austria* L
German for Germany* L
German for Switzerland* L
Greek for Greece* L
Gujarati for India
Hebrew for Israel*
Hindi for India
Hungarian for Hungary*
Icelandic for Iceland* L
Italian for Italy* L
Italian for Switzerland* L
Japanese for Japan*
Kannada for India
Korean for South Korea*
Latvian for Latvia* L
Lithuanian for Lithuania
Malay for Singapore*
Malayalam for India
Mandarin for China*
Mandarin for Singapore*
Mandarin for Taiwan*
Marathi for India
Norwegian for Norway*
Polish for Poland*
Portuguese for Brazil*
Portuguese for Portugal* L
Punjabi for India* L
Romanian for Moldavia* L
Romanian for Romania*
Russian for Belarus* L
Russian for Estonia* L
Russian for Israel*
Russian for Latvia* L
Russian for Lithuania* L
Russian for Moldavia* L
Russian for Russia*
Russian for Ukraine* L
Serbian for Serbia*
Slovak for Slovakia*
Slovenian for Slovenia* L
Spanish for Argentina*
Spanish for Chile*
Spanish for Colombia*
Spanish for Guatemala* L
Spanish for Mexico*
Spanish for Peru*
Spanish for Puerto Rico*
Spanish for Spain* L
Spanish for the USA*
Swedish for Finland* L
Swedish for Sweden* L
Tagalog for the Philippines* L
Tamil for India
Tamil for Malaysia
Telugu for India
Thai for Thailand
Turkish for Germany* L
Turkish for Turkey*
Ukrainian for Ukraine*
Urdu for India* L
Zulu for South Africa*
* Performed by Mapi/ICON
L Has undergone a Linguistic Validation methodology

Please note that some translated versions may be slightly different from the original ESS.

BiblioPRO: you can find information about the Spanish version here - puede encontrar información sobre la versión española aqui

The author has selected Mapi/ICON Language Services as exclusive linguistic validation company to ensure the production of harmonized and consistent language versions.

For additional information on available translations of this instrument, or for a project involving new languages, please submit a request (tutorials available on our FAQs).

Conditions to translate

Academic Translation

If you wish to translate the questionnaire:

  1. Log in or Register for free
  2. Submit your request for translation online (Tutorials are available on our FAQs)
  3. Our PROVIDE team will send you a translation agreement along with Linguistic Validation Guidelines.

Commercial Users

Exclusive vendor for translation work for commercial users: Mapi/ICON Language Services

More information on translations

Bibliographic references of translations:

See Dr Johns personal website


Conditions of Use

A license agreement must be completed and a user fee is required by all users (commercial & academic users) and a screenshot review agreement must be signed by commercial users. Please submit a request.

Conditions to Implement in Electronic Applications

The work performed can be certified once it has been confirmed as being in line with the instructions of the ESS e-Booklet.

Screenshots review of the original version:

 The review of the screenshots is mandatory and should be performed exclusively by MRT. This work is subject to a specific budget
 The review of the screenshots is not mandatory but can be performed by MRT. This work is subject to a specific budget
 The review of the screenshots is mandatory and should be performed exclusively by the Authors

Usability testing of the original version performed by Experts:

If applicable for a specific scope and budget, after implementation of the ESS into the device(s), the User and/or eCOA Company will provide Mapi/ICON with a test device or the on-line connection, in order to assess the overall usability of the solution, with the target patient population(s) in mind including clarity, navigation, font size, and device usability.

Screenshots review of target language:

 The review of target language screenshots is mandatory and should be performed exclusively by Mapi/ICON. This work is subject to a specific budget
 The review of target language screenshots is not mandatory but can be performed by Mapi/ICON. This work is subject to a specific budget
 The review of target language screenshots is mandatory and should be performed exclusively by the Authors

e-Booklets Information

The Questionnaire e-Booklet, developed in collaboration with the Owner, is intended to accompany the User through the development of official, validated, and approved electronic versions of the Questionnaire. It includes instructions and checklists on instrument properties and configuration, content, navigation, workflow diagram, format and provides a model about how the electronic version of the Questionnaire must be displayed (i.e. the “Original electronic Versions” (“OeVs”) of the Questionnaire).

e-Booklet Status:

Under Development

e-Booklet Current Version: ESS_AU1.0_e-Booklet_2.0

Compatible Devices:

Handheld Device  

Please do make sure to consider the target population when selecting a device for a specific study.

(1)for password protected clinical trial projects only.
(2)Web versions should only be authorized for screens of 1024px or larger, i.e. mobile device cannot access the Web versions or a disclaimer should be stated otherwise. Upon termination of the User Agreement between the User and MRT, the User shall immediately cease the use of the e-PRO and shall destroy any material related to the e-PRO in the system by erasing them from the magnetic mediate on which they are stored and certify in writing that they have been destroyed.
(3)The User acknowledges that devices, non-compliant with the approved modalities specification as detailed above, will not be certified. The User shall be responsible for any consequences arising out from the use by the patients of any non-approved devices and in particular non-approved screen sizes.

Available e-Versions Certified for eCOA Library Use

The information below is related to the versions certified by MRT on behalf of the copyright holder/author.

Vendor Name

Original e-Version Language

e-Booklet Version

 Type of Device

Category of Device

Name of Device


English for the USA



Mobile ios

iPhone 6


English for the USA



Tablet ios

iPad Air 2

Inspire Sleep

English for the USA



Mobile ios
Mobile android
Tablet ios
Tablet android


For any other validated devices, please submit a request.

Member Access

Subscribe to PROQOLID to access to full information

Access to advanced descriptions of Clinical Outcome Assessments (COAs)

A question? Contact us