Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)

Johns Murray W, MB, BS, BSc, PhD

Distributed by Mapi Research Trust

Distributed by Mapi Research Trust

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Basic description

Developed in 1990 and revised in 1997

WEBINAR: An Author Webinar on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale - Recorded session available here!


Johns Murray W, MB, BS, BSc, PhD

ESS © MW Johns 1990-1997. Used under License.
To measure a subject's usual level of daytime sleepiness or average sleep propensity
Therapeutic area
  • Nervous System Diseases
  • Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms
Therapeutic indication

Sleep Disorders (includes apnea)

Type of Clinical Outcome Assessment (COA)
Original language(s)
  • English for Australia
Bibliographic reference(s) of the original questionnaire

Johns MW. The clinical assessment of daytime sleepiness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. In:Surgery for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, ed. Fabiani M. Kugler publications, The Hague, 2003: 283-295

Johns MW. Sensitivity and specificity of the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), the maintenance of wakefulness test and the epworth sleepiness scale: failure of the MSLT as a gold standard. J Sleep Res. 2000 Mar;9(1):5-11 (PubMed abstract)

Johns MW. Sleepiness in different situations measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep. 1994 Dec;17(8):703-10 (PubMed abstract)

Johns MW. Daytime sleepiness, snoring, and obstructive sleep apnea. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Chest. 1993 Jan;103(1):30-6 (PubMed abstract)

Johns MW. Reliability and factor analysis of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep. 1992 Aug;15(4):376-81 (PubMed abstract)

Johns MW. A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth sleepiness scale. Sleep. 1991 Dec;14(6):540-5 (PubMed abstract)

Contact and conditions of use


Johns Murray W, MB, BS, BSc, PhD

Dr Murray W Johns
P.O. Box 232
Flinders, VIC 3121,
Murray W Johns  Publications (PubMed)

Dr Johns personal website

Contact information

Mapi Research Trust
27 rue de la Villette
69003 Lyon
Telephone: +33 (0)4 72 13 65 75

Conditions of use

Non-Funded Academic Users

Please consult the online distribution tab below for our automated licensing and distribution process.

Other Users

  1. All requests have to be submitted through our online request management (Tutorials are available on our FAQs)
  2. In order to accelerate the process, you may attach the completed User Agreement (link below) to your online request
  3. Send the user agreement signed hard copy by regular mail to Mapi Research Trust, as we need it for our records
  4. Our PROVIDE team will get back to you with the needed information in a timely manner

Access fees

ROYALTY FEES* Commercial users Cost per study 1 100 € (use in commercial epidemiologic / observational / marketing studies: please consult the User Agreement)
Cost per language 550 €
Funded academic research Cost per study 300 €
Cost per language 50 €
Not funded academic users Cost per study Free
Cost per language Free
DISTRIBUTION FEES* Commercial users Cost per study 1 000 €
Cost per language 500 €
Funded academic research Cost per study 300 €
Cost per language 50 €
Not funded academic users Cost per study Free
Cost per language Free

* Excluding VAT
Commercial users: Industry, CRO, any for-profit companies
Funded Academic research: Projects receiving funding from commerce, government, EU or registered charity. Funded academic research– sponsored by industry fits the “commercial users” category.
Not funded academic users, individual medical practice: Projects are not explicitly funded, but funding comes from overall departmental funds or from the University or individual funds

Conditions to translate

Please refer to the "Languages" tab

Conditions to implement in electronic applications

Exclusive licensor for e-versions of the ESS: Mapi Research Trust

Academic and Commercial Users

  • Shall follow the “Conditions of use”  mentioned above
  • In addition, in case the electronic version of the ESS is developed by a third party (IT Company, e-PRO vendor…), User shall check with Mapi Research Trust that this third party has signed the necessary License Agreement with Mapi Research Trust before developing the electronic version of the Questionnaire.

Information Technology (IT) Companies (incl. ePRO vendors)

  • In case of a one-shot development and commercial use of an electronic version of the ESS by the IT Company, the IT Company shall:
    • Sign a “Specific-Study License Agreement with IT Company” with Mapi Research Trust
      • authorizing the electronic implementation of the ESS for the specific study only
      • shall not permit the IT Company to promote the electronic version of the ESS or its use for another study or another client
    • Pay a one-shot license fee per study to Mapi Research Trust: 500 Euros
  • In case of an IT Company who wishes to develop an electronic version of the ESS and would like to obtain a non-exclusive license to market and promote their devices / tablets / smartphones / e-applications using the ESS, the IT Company shall:
    • Sign a “General License Agreement with IT Company” with Mapi Research Trust
      • authorizing the electronic implementation of the ESS on multiple devices for multiple studies and clients
      • permitting the IT Company to promote the electronic versions of the ESS by any marketing means (including, but not limited to, IT Company’s  promotional documents / websites / press release / communication during conferences / webinars)
    • Pay an annual administrative fee of 2,500 Euros to Mapi Research Trust
    • Pay an annual royalty fee of 2,500 Euros to Dr. Murray Johns 

Author Website(s)

Additional information on the ESS website

Review copy

Examination copies can only be used for the limited purpose of examining the suitability of the Questionnaire for subsequent research and/or clinical use, and cannot be used in research or in clinical practice or distributed to others.
You are not authorized to modify, retype, translate, copy or otherwise duplicate the Questionnaire except with the further and prior written permission of Mapi Research Trust.

Online distribution

For Non-Funded Academic Studies

The following licensing process is restricted to academic users:

  • Who do not receive specific funding for their study
  • Who intend to use the questionnaire in individual clinical practice or research study

Should you not correspond to this category of users, please send us a request.

Note: This site aims at providing you with the original version and existing translations of the questionnaire. However some modules/versions may not be downloadable in the language you need.


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Original language(s)

  • English for Australia


The list of translations may not have undergone a full linguistic validation process and may require further work to be suitable for use in a study. This list is subject to constant changes, therefore please check the status of translations with Mapi Research Trust / the developers / copyright holders / distributors.


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* Performed by Mapi

Please note that some translated versions may be slightly diferent from the original ESS.

The author has selected Mapi as exclusive linguistic validation company to ensure the production of harmonized and consistent language versions.

For additional information on available translations of this instrument, or for a project involving new languages, please submit a request (tutorials available on our FAQs).

Conditions to translate

Academic Translation

Please submit a request to sign a translation agreement and to obtain Linguistic Validation Guidelines. To submit a request, please consult our FAQs.

Commercial Users

Exclusive vendor for translation work for commercial users: Mapi

More information on translations

Bibliographic references of translations:

See Dr Johns personal website



Last update: February 2017
For additional information, please submit a request. More information in our FAQs.


PROLABELS symbol PROLABELS: 4 indications