loading...

General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)

Goldberg D

Distributed by Mapi Research Trust

ProQolid

Distributed by Mapi Research Trust

Basic description

GHQ-12: A quick screener for survey use

GHQ-28 or "Scaled" GHQ: Provides four scores measuring somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and severe depression.

GHQ-30: A screener with "physical" element items removed 

GHQ-60: Main version of the GHQ, used to identify cases for more intensive examination

The GHQ focuses on the client’s ability to carry out "normal" functions and the appearance of any new disturbing phenomena.

Designed for use by doctors, psychiatrists and researchers, the GHQ is ideal for use in community and non-psychiatric settings.

Authors

Goldberg D

Copyright
GHQ-12:
© David Goldberg, 1978
All rights reserved. This work may not be reproduced by any means, even within the terms of a Photocopying Licence, without the written permission of the publisher. Photocopying without permission may result in legal action. Published by GL Assessment Limited 1st Floor Vantage London, Great West Road, London TW8 9AG, UK. This edition published 1992. GL Assessment is part of the GL Education Group.

GHQ-28:
© D. Goldberg & The Institute of Psychiatry, 1981
All rights reserved. This work may not be reproduced by any means, even within the terms of a Photocopying Licence, without the written permission of the publisher. Published by GL Assessment Limited 1st Floor Vantage London, Great West Road, London TW8 9AG, UK. GL Assessment is part of the GL Education Group First published 1978

GHQ-30:
© D. Goldberg, 1978
All rights reserved. This work may not be reproduced by any means, even within the terms of a Photocopying Licence, without the written permission of the publisher. Published by GL Assessment Limited 1st Floor Vantage London, Great West Road, London TW8 9AG, UK. GL Assessment is part of the GL Education Group First published 1978

GHQ-60:
© D. Goldberg & The Institute of Psychiatry, 1978
All rights reserved. This work may not be reproduced by any means, even within the terms of a Photocopying Licence, without the written permission of the publisher. Published by GL Assessment Limited 1st Floor Vantage London, Great West Road, London TW8 9AG, UK. GL Assessment is part of the GL Education Group First published 1978
Objective
Screening instrument to detect psychiatric disorders in community settings and non-psychiatric clinical settings, such as primary care or general practice
Therapeutic area
  • Mental Disorders
  • Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Therapeutic indication
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Depression
Type of Clinical Outcome Assessment (COA)
  • pro PRO
Original language(s)
  • English for the UK
Bibliographic reference(s) of the original questionnaire

Goldberg DP. The detection of psychiatric illness by questionnaire. London, Oxford University Press, 1972

Goldberg DP et al. Manual of the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor, England, NFER Publishing, 1978

Goldberg DP, Hillier VF. A scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire. Psychol Med. 1979 Feb;9(1):139-45

Vieweg BW, and Hedlund JL . The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ): A comprehensive review. Journal of Operational Psychiatry 1983; 14(2), 74-81

Goldberg D. Identifying psychiatric illness among general medical patients. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1985 Jul 20;291(6489):161-2

David Goldberg & Paul Williams 'A User's Guide to the General Health Questionnaire'  1988 NferNelson: Windsor, UK

Goldberg DP, Oldehinkel T, Ormel J. Why GHQ threshold varies from one place to another. Psychol Med 1998;28(4):915-21

Access this questionnaire

Licensing

The General Health Questionnaire© (GHQ) is protected worldwide by international copyright laws in all languages, with all rights reserved to GL Assessment, UK. Do not use without permission.

For permission to use the GHQ from a Licensee based in the United Kingdom/Republic of Ireland/Channel Islands, please contact permissions@gl-assessment.co.uk.
For Licensees based in other countries, please contact the Mapi Research Trust at https://eprovide.mapi-trust.org.

Distribution of Translations

Existing translations can be obtained from Mapi Research Trust. 

Submit your request (see tutorial). Our PROVIDE team will get back to you with the needed information and license agreement in a timely manner.

Fees may apply to your project.


Contact and conditions of use

Contact information

Mapi Research Trust
PROVIDE™
27 rue de la Villette
69003 Lyon
France
Phone: +33 (0)4 72 13 66 66

Conditions of use

Licensing

The General Health Questionnaire© (GHQ) is protected worldwide by international copyright laws in all languages, with all rights reserved to GL Assessment, UK. Do not use without permission.

For permission to use the GHQ from a Licensee based in the United Kingdom/Republic of Ireland/Channel Islands, please contact permissions@gl-assessment.co.uk.
For Licensees based in other countries, please contact the Mapi Research Trust at https://eprovide.mapi-trust.org.

Distribution of Translations

Existing translations can be obtained from Mapi Research Trust. 

Submit your request (see tutorial). Our PROVIDE team will get back to you with the needed information and license agreement in a timely manner.

Fees may apply to your project.

Review copy

Examination copies can only be used for the limited purpose of examining the suitability of the Questionnaire for subsequent research and/or clinical use, and cannot be used in research or in clinical practice or distributed to others.
You are not authorized to modify, retype, translate, copy or otherwise duplicate the Questionnaire except with the further and prior written permission of Mapi Research Trust / the developers / copyright holders / distributors.

For licensees based in the United Kingdom/Republic of Ireland/Channel Islands, please contact permissions@gl-assessment.co.uk.

For licensees based in other countries, please contact the Mapi Research Trust at https://eprovide.mapi-trust.org.

Languages

Original language(s)

  • English for the UK

Translations

The list of available translations is subject to constant changes and may not be exhaustive. It is provided for information only. Some recently produced translations may not be included in the list below yet. Please do check the status of available translations with Mapi Research Trust / the developers / copyright holders / distributors.

Also, the listed translations may not have undergone a full linguistic validation process and may require further work to be suitable for use in a study.

GHQ-12

Albanian
Arabic
Bahasa for Malaysia
Bahasa/Indonesian for Indonesia
Cantonese
Chinese for Singapore
Creole for Haiti
Dagbani for Ghana
Dutch for Belgium (Flemish)*
Dutch for the Netherlands*
English for Canada*
English for the USA*
Ewe for Ghana
Finnish for Finland*
French for Belgium*
French for Canada*
French for France*
French for Switzerland*
Ga for Ghana
German for Austria*
German for Germany*
German for Switzerland*
Greek for Greece*
Gujarati for India
Hebrew for Israel
Hindi for India*
Hungarian for Hungary
Indonesian for Indonesia
Italian for Italy*
Italian for Switzerland*
Japanese for Japan
Kinyarwanda for Rwanda
Korean for Korea*
Lithuanian for Lithuania*
Malay for Malaysia
Malay for Singapore
Mandarin for Taiwan*
Nepalese for Nepal
Norwegian for Norway*
Portuguese for Brazil*
Punjabi for India
Russian for Russia*
Serbo-croatian
Slovenian for Slovenia*
Sorani
Spanish for Argentina*
Spanish for Chile
Spanish for Colombia*
Spanish for Costa Rica*
Spanish for Mexico*
Spanish for Spain
Swahili
Swedish for Finland*
Swedish for Sweden*
Tagalog for the Philippines*
Tamil for Malaysia
Turkish for Turkey*
Welsh for Wales

GHQ-28

Albanian for Albania
Arabic
Bengali for India
Cantonese
Chinese for Taiwan (Traditional)
Dutch for the Netherlands
French for France
German for Germany
Greek for Greece
Gujarati for India
Japanese for Japan
Malay
Mandarin
Mandarin for Taiwan
Mirpuri for Pakistan
Nepalese for Nepal
Punjabi for India
Russian for Russia
Serbian for Serbia
Setswana
Sorani
Spanish for Spain
Swedish for Sweden
Turkish for Turkey
Urdu for India

GHQ-30

Arabic
Bengali for India
Chinese
Danish for Denmark
French for France
Gujarati for India
Japanese
Polish
Punjabi for India
Urdu for India

GHQ-60

Cantonese
Japanese for Japan
Mandarin
* Performed by Mapi/ICON

The copyright in the Japanese versions of the GHQ 12, 28, 30 and 60 are held by Nihon Bunka Kagakusha. Additional information on: http://www.nichibun.co.jp/english/products/

Please also note that Cambridge University Press handles the licensing for the GHQ-28 in Spanish for Spain.

BiblioPRO: you can find information about the Spanish version here - puede encontrar información sobre la versión española aqui

POLISH language translations of the GHQ 12 & 28 item scales and the User’s Guide to the GHQ:  If you require these translations, contact the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Poland edytor@imp.lodz.pl

The author has selected Mapi/ICON Language Services as exclusive linguistic validation company to ensure the production of harmonized and consistent language versions.

For additional information on available translations of this instrument, or for a project involving new languages, please submit a request (tutorials available on our FAQs).

Conditions to translate

Commercial Users

Exclusive vendor for translation work for commercial users: Mapi/ICON Language Services

Academic Translation

If you wish to translate the questionnaire:

  1. Log in or Register for free
  2. Submit your request for translation online (Tutorials are available on our FAQs)
  3. Our PROVIDE team will send you a translation agreement along with Linguistic Validation Guidelines.

More information on translations

Bibliographic references of the Arabic translation:

El-Rufaie OEF, Daradkeh T. The Arabic General Health Questionnaire (AGHQ): A culture-relevant version. Primary Care Psychiatry. 1997;3:141-144

El-Rufaie OEF, Daradkeh T. Validation of the Arabic versions of the 30 and 12 - item General Health Questionnaires in primary care patients. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1996;169: 662-664

Bibliographic reference of the Chinese translation:

Shek DT, Tsang SK. Reliability and factor structure of the Chinese GHQ-30 for parents with preschool mentally handicapped children. J Clin Psychol. 1995 Mar;51(2):227-34

Bibliographic references of the French translation:

Pariente PD, Challita H, Mesbah M et al. The GHQ-28 Questionnaire in French: A Validation Survey in a Panel of 158 General Psychiatric Patients. European Psychiatry 1992; 7:15-20

de Mont-Marin F, Hardy P, Lepine JP, Halfon P, Feline A. [Validation of a French version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) in a diabetic population] Encephale. 1993 Jul-Aug;19(4):293-301. French

Bolognini M, Bettschart W, Zehnder-Gubler M, Rossier L. The validity of the French version of the GHQ-28 and PSYDIS in a community sample of 20 year olds in Switzerland. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci. 1989;238(3):161-8

Bibliographic reference of the Iranian translation:

Montazeri A, Harirchi AM, Shariati M, Garmaroudi G, Ebadi M, Fateh A. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12): translation and validation
study of the Iranian version. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2003 Nov 13;1(1):66

Bibliographic references of the Italian translation:

Lattanzi M, Galvan U, Rizzetto A, Gavioli I, Zimmermann-Tansella C. Estimating psychiatric morbidity in the community. Standardization of the Italian versions of GHQ and CIS. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1988 Oct;23(4):267-72.

Fontanesi F, Gobetti C, Zimmermann-Tansella C, Tansella M. Validation of the Italian version of the GHQ in a general practice setting. Psychol Med. 1985 May;15(2):411-5.

Bibliographic reference of the Indian translation:

Sriram TG, Chandrashekar CR, Isaac MK, Shanmugham V. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Comparison of the English version and a translated Indian version. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1989 Nov;24(6):317-20.

Bibliographic references of the Japanese translation:

Iida J, Oribe H, Hirose T, Ikawa G. Investigations of mental health of school teachers for the mentally retarded and staff members in social welfare facilities for the mentally retarded: using a Japanese version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Jpn J Psychiatry Neurol. 1994 Mar;48(1):65-70.

Kitamura T, Sugawara M, Aoki M, Shima S. Validity of the Japanese version of the GHQ among antenatal clinic attendants. Psychol Med. 1989 May;19(2):507-11.

Bibliographic reference of the Spanish translation:

Lobo A, Perez-Echeverria MJ, Artal J. Validity of the Scaled Version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) in a Spanish Population. Psychological Medicine 1986; 16:135-140

Bibliographic reference of the Thai translation:

Nilchaikovit T, Sukying C, Silpakit C. Reliability and validity of the Thai version of the General Health Questionaire. Journal of the Psychiatric Association of Thailand 1996;41(1)

Bibliographic reference of the Turkish translation:

Stuart GW, Klimidis S, Minas IH et al. The factor structure of the Turkish version of the General Health Questionnaire. The International Journal of Social Psychiatry 1993;39:274-284

Copy of the Turkish translation: in Appendix of the reference above.

Bibliographic reference of the Urdu translation:

Riaz H, Reza H. The evaluation of an Urdu version of the GHQ-28. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1998 Jun;97(6):427-32.

Member Access

Subscribe to PROQOLID to access to full information

Access to advanced descriptions of Clinical Outcome Assessments (COAs)

A question? Contact us