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General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)

Goldberg David

Distributed by Mapi Research Trust

Distributed by Mapi Research Trust

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Basic description

GHQ-12: A quick screener for survey use

GHQ-28 or "Scaled" GHQ: Provides four scores measuring somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and severe depression.

GHQ-30: A screener with "physical" element items removed 

GHQ-60: Main version of the GHQ, used to identify cases for more intensive examination

The GHQ focuses on the client’s ability to carry out "normal" functions and the appearance of any new disturbing phenomena.

Designed for use by doctors, psychiatrists and researchers, the GHQ is ideal for use in community and non-psychiatric settings.

Authors

Goldberg David

Copyright
GHQ-12:
© David Goldberg, 1978
All rights reserved. This work may not be reproduced by any means, even within the terms of a Photocopying Licence, without the written permission of the publisher. Photocopying without permission may result in legal action. Published by GL Assessment Limited 1st Floor Vantage London, Great West Road, London TW8 9AG, UK. This edition published 1992. GL Assessment is part of the GL Education Group.

GHQ-28:
© D. Goldberg & The Institute of Psychiatry, 1981
All rights reserved. This work may not be reproduced by any means, even within the terms of a Photocopying Licence, without the written permission of the publisher. Published by GL Assessment Limited 1st Floor Vantage London, Great West Road, London TW8 9AG, UK. GL Assessment is part of the GL Education Group First published 1978

GHQ-30:
© D. Goldberg, 1978
All rights reserved. This work may not be reproduced by any means, even within the terms of a Photocopying Licence, without the written permission of the publisher. Published by GL Assessment Limited 1st Floor Vantage London, Great West Road, London TW8 9AG, UK. GL Assessment is part of the GL Education Group First published 1978

GHQ-60:
© D. Goldberg & The Institute of Psychiatry, 1978
All rights reserved. This work may not be reproduced by any means, even within the terms of a Photocopying Licence, without the written permission of the publisher. Published by GL Assessment Limited 1st Floor Vantage London, Great West Road, London TW8 9AG, UK. GL Assessment is part of the GL Education Group First published 1978
Objective
Screening instrument to detect psychiatric disorders in community settings and non-psychiatric clinical settings, such as primary care or general practice
Therapeutic area
  • Nervous System Diseases
  • Mental Disorders
  • Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Therapeutic indication
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Depression
Type of Clinical Outcome Assessment (COA)
  • PRO PRO
Original language(s)
  • English for the UK
Bibliographic reference(s) of the original questionnaire

Goldberg DP. The detection of psychiatric illness by questionnaire. London, Oxford University Press, 1972

Goldberg DP et al. Manual of the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor, England, NFER Publishing, 1978

Goldberg DP, Hillier VF. A scaled version of the General Health Questionnaire. Psychol Med. 1979 Feb;9(1):139-45

Vieweg BW, and Hedlund JL . The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ): A comprehensive review. Journal of Operational Psychiatry 1983; 14(2), 74-81

Goldberg D. Identifying psychiatric illness among general medical patients. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1985 Jul 20;291(6489):161-2

David Goldberg & Paul Williams 'A User's Guide to the General Health Questionnaire'  1988 NferNelson: Windsor, UK

Goldberg DP, Oldehinkel T, Ormel J. Why GHQ threshold varies from one place to another. Psychol Med 1998;28(4):915-21


Contact and conditions of use

Authors

Goldberg David

Professor Sir David P Goldberg, MD
Institute of Psychiatry
DeCrespigny Park, Denmark Hill
London SE5 8AE
UK
Phone: +44 (0)20 7836 5454
Fax: +44 (0)20 7848 0530
E-mail: d.goldberg@iop.kcl.ac.uk

David P Goldberg Publications (PubMed)

Contact information

Mapi Research Trust
PROVIDE™
27 rue de la Villette
69003 Lyon
France
Phone: +33 (0)4 72 13 66 66

Conditions of use

Licensing

The use of the questionnaire is licensed by GL Assessment.

A license agreement must be completed beforehand and a user fee is required to all users (commercial and academic users).

Please contact:

GL Assessment Ltd.
1st Floor Vantage London
Great West Road
London TW8 9AG
United Kingdom
Email: permissions@gl-assessment.co.uk
Website: www.gl-assessment.co.uk

Distribution of Translations

Existing translations can be obtained from Mapi Research Trust:

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  4. Our PROVIDE team will get back to you with the needed information in a timely manner

Access fees

ROYALTY FEES* Commercial users Cost per study Free
Cost per language 500 € per requested language version
Funded academic research Cost per study Free
Cost per language 100 € per requested language version
Not funded academic users Cost per study Free
Cost per language Free
DISTRIBUTION FEES* Commercial users Cost per study Free
Cost per language 600 € per requested language version
Funded academic research Cost per study Free
Cost per language 100 € per requested language version
Not funded academic users Cost per study Free
Cost per language Free

* Excluding VAT
Commercial users: Industry, CRO, any for-profit companies
Funded Academic research: Projects receiving funding from commerce, government, EU or registered charity. Funded academic research– sponsored by industry fits the “commercial users” category.
Not funded academic users, individual medical practice: Projects are not explicitly funded, but funding comes from overall departmental funds or from the University or individual funds

Note: These fees shall be paid for each study.

Review copy

Examination copies can only be used for the limited purpose of examining the suitability of the Questionnaire for subsequent research and/or clinical use, and cannot be used in research or in clinical practice or distributed to others.
You are not authorized to modify, retype, translate, copy or otherwise duplicate the Questionnaire except with the further and prior written permission of Mapi Research Trust / the developers / copyright holders / distributors.

Please contact GL Assessment Ltd

Languages

Original language(s)

  • English for the UK

Translations

The translations listed may not have undergone a full linguistic validation process and may require further work to be suitable for use in a study. This list is subject to constant changes, therefore please check the status of translations with Mapi Research Trust / the developers / copyright holders / distributors.

GHQ-12

Arabic
Bahasa for Indonesia
Bahasa for Malaysia
Cantonese
Chinese for Singapore
Creole for Haiti
Dutch for Belgium (Flemish)*
Dutch for the Netherlands
Finnish for Finland*
French for Belgium*
French for France
German for Austria*
German for Germany
German for Switzerland*
Greek for Greece*
Gujarati for India
Hindi for India
Hungarian for Hungary
Italian for Italy*
Japanese for Japan
Kinyarwanda for Rwanda
Malay for Singapore
Mandarin
Nepalese for Nepal
Portuguese
Punjabi for India
Russian for Russia
Serbo-croatian
Sorani
Spanish for Chile
Spanish for Spain
Swedish for Finland*
Swedish for Sweden*
Tagalog for the Philippines
Tamil for Malaysia
Turkish for Turkey*
Welsh for Wales

GHQ-28

Albanian for Albania
Arabic
Bengali for India
Cantonese
Chinese for Taiwan (Traditional)
French for France
German for Germany
Greek for Greece
Gujarati for India
Japanese for Japan
Malay
Mandarin
Mandarin for Taiwan
Mirpuri for Pakistan
Nepalese for Nepal
Punjabi for India
Russian for Russia
Serbian for Serbia
Setswana
Sorani
Spanish for Spain
Swedish for Sweden
Turkish for Turkey
Urdu for India

GHQ-30

Arabic
Bengali for India
Danish for Denmark
French for France
Gujarati for India
Punjabi for India
Urdu for India

GHQ-60

Cantonese
Japanese for Japan
Mandarin
* Performed by Mapi

The copyright in the Japanese versions of the GHQ 12, 28, 30 and 60 are held by Nihon Bunka Kagakusha. Additional information on: http://www.nichibun.co.jp/english/products/

Please also note that Cambridge University Press handles the licensing for the GHQ-28 in Spanish for Spain.

The author has selected Mapi as exclusive linguistic validation company to ensure the production of harmonized and consistent language versions.

For additional information on available translations of this instrument, or for a project involving new languages, please submit a request (tutorials available on our FAQs).

Conditions to translate

Academic Translation

If you wish to translate the questionnaire:

  1. Log in or Register for free
  2. Submit your request for translation online (Tutorials are available on our FAQs)
  3. Our PROVIDE team will send you a translation agreement along with Linguistic Validation Guidelines.

Commercial Users

Exclusive vendor for translation work for commercial users: Mapi

More information on translations

Bibliographic references of the Arabic translation:

El-Rufaie OEF, Daradkeh T. The Arabic General Health Questionnaire (AGHQ): A culture-relevant version. Primary Care Psychiatry. 1997;3:141-144

El-Rufaie OEF, Daradkeh T. Validation of the Arabic versions of the 30 and 12 - item General Health Questionnaires in primary care patients. British Journal of Psychiatry. 1996;169: 662-664

Bibliographic reference of the Chinese translation:

Shek DT, Tsang SK. Reliability and factor structure of the Chinese GHQ-30 for parents with preschool mentally handicapped children. J Clin Psychol. 1995 Mar;51(2):227-34

Bibliographic references of the French translation:

Pariente PD, Challita H, Mesbah M et al. The GHQ-28 Questionnaire in French: A Validation Survey in a Panel of 158 General Psychiatric Patients. European Psychiatry 1992; 7:15-20

de Mont-Marin F, Hardy P, Lepine JP, Halfon P, Feline A. [Validation of a French version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) in a diabetic population] Encephale. 1993 Jul-Aug;19(4):293-301. French

Bolognini M, Bettschart W, Zehnder-Gubler M, Rossier L. The validity of the French version of the GHQ-28 and PSYDIS in a community sample of 20 year olds in Switzerland. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci. 1989;238(3):161-8

Bibliographic reference of the Iranian translation:

Montazeri A, Harirchi AM, Shariati M, Garmaroudi G, Ebadi M, Fateh A. The 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12): translation and validation
study of the Iranian version. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2003 Nov 13;1(1):66

Bibliographic references of the Italian translation:

Lattanzi M, Galvan U, Rizzetto A, Gavioli I, Zimmermann-Tansella C. Estimating psychiatric morbidity in the community. Standardization of the Italian versions of GHQ and CIS. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1988 Oct;23(4):267-72.

Fontanesi F, Gobetti C, Zimmermann-Tansella C, Tansella M. Validation of the Italian version of the GHQ in a general practice setting. Psychol Med. 1985 May;15(2):411-5.

Bibliographic reference of the Indian translation:

Sriram TG, Chandrashekar CR, Isaac MK, Shanmugham V. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Comparison of the English version and a translated Indian version. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1989 Nov;24(6):317-20.

Bibliographic references of the Japanese translation:

Iida J, Oribe H, Hirose T, Ikawa G. Investigations of mental health of school teachers for the mentally retarded and staff members in social welfare facilities for the mentally retarded: using a Japanese version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Jpn J Psychiatry Neurol. 1994 Mar;48(1):65-70.

Kitamura T, Sugawara M, Aoki M, Shima S. Validity of the Japanese version of the GHQ among antenatal clinic attendants. Psychol Med. 1989 May;19(2):507-11.

Bibliographic reference of the Spanish translation:

Lobo A, Perez-Echeverria MJ, Artal J. Validity of the Scaled Version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) in a Spanish Population. Psychological Medicine 1986; 16:135-140

Bibliographic reference of the Thai translation:

Nilchaikovit T, Sukying C, Silpakit C. Reliability and validity of the Thai version of the General Health Questionaire. Journal of the Psychiatric Association of Thailand 1996;41(1)

Bibliographic reference of the Turkish translation:

Stuart GW, Klimidis S, Minas IH et al. The factor structure of the Turkish version of the General Health Questionnaire. The International Journal of Social Psychiatry 1993;39:274-284

Copy of the Turkish translation: in Appendix of the reference above.

Bibliographic reference of the Urdu translation:

Riaz H, Reza H. The evaluation of an Urdu version of the GHQ-28. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1998 Jun;97(6):427-32.

Last update: October 2017
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