Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL)

Derogatis LR; Lipman RS; Rickels K; Uhlenhuth EH; Covi L


Basic description

  • The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL) is a large group of questionnaires developed from The Discomfort Scale (Parloff, Kelman & Frank, 1954) which was developed from the Cornell Medical Index and the Multidimensional Scale for Rating Psychiatric Patients (Lorr, 1952). The information listed here concerns the first documented development and validation available for the group of questionnaires (Derogatis et al., 1974), and concerns only the 58 item original checklist HSCL, or HSCL-58. At the time of this validation, the questionnaire had been in use over 15 years.
  • The HSCL-58 preceded its short form, the HSCL-35 (1974) and its long form, the HSCL-90 or SCL-90 (prototype in 1973, validation in 1977). These two forms were followed by versions of various lengths [HSCL-25 (1984); SCL-90-R (1983, 1986, 1992, 1994); Brief Symptom Inventory or BSI (1975, 1983, 1993), BSI-18 (2001); HSCL-72; HSCL-45; HSCL-30; HSCL-21; HSCL-10; HSCL-6]
  • The most frequently used current versions are HSCL/HSCL-58 (1974), HSCL-25 (1984), SCL-90-R (1994), and the Brief Symptom Inventory (1993).

Derogatis LR; Lipman RS; Rickels K; Uhlenhuth EH; Covi L

No information
To measure symptom severity in psychiatric outpatients, and treatment response in psychiatric inpatient studies
Therapeutic area
  • Mental Disorders
Therapeutic indication
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Depressive disorder
Type of Clinical Outcome Assessment (COA)
  • pro PRO
Original language(s)
  • English for the USA
3 translation(s)
Bibliographic reference(s) of the original questionnaire

Derogatis LR, Lipman RS, Rickels K, Uhlenhuth EH, Covi L. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL): a self-report symptom inventory. Behav Sci. 1974 Jan;19(1):1-15 (PubMed Abstract)

Jacobs D, Garcia CR, Rickels K, & Preucel RW. A prospective study on the psychological effects of therapeutic abortion. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1973 (Full text article)

Prusoff B, Klerman GL. Differentiating Depressed From Anxious Neurotic OutpatientsUse of Discriminant Function Analysis for Separation of Neurotic Affective States. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1974;30(3):302–309 (PsycNet Abstract)

Rickels K, Lipman RS, Garcia CR, Fisher E. Evaluating clinical improvement in anxious outpatients: a comparison of normal and treated neurotic patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1972 Feb;128(8):1005-9 (PubMed Abstract)

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