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Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)

Snaith RP; Zigmond AS

Distributed by Mapi Research Trust

ProQolid

Distributed by Mapi Research Trust

Basic description

Developed in 1983

WEBINAR: An Author Webinar on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - Recorded session available here!

Authors

Snaith RP; Zigmond AS

Copyright
HADS copyright © R.P. Snaith and A.S. Zigmond, 1983, 1992, 1994. Record form items originally published in Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 67, 361–70, copyright © Munksgaard International Publishers Ltd, Copenhagen, 1983.
Published by GL Assessment Limited, 1st Floor Vantage London, Great West Road, London TW8 9AG, UK. All rights reserved. GL Assessment is part of the GL Education Group.
Objective
To detect states of anxiety and depression
Therapeutic area
  • Nervous System Diseases
  • Mental Disorders
  • Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms
Therapeutic indication
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Depression
Type of Clinical Outcome Assessment (COA)
  • pro PRO
Original language(s)
  • English for the UK
Bibliographic reference(s) of the original questionnaire

Snaith RP. The Hospital Anxiety And Depression Scale. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2003 Aug, 1:29 (Full text article)

White D, Leach C, Sims R, Atkinson M, Cottrell D. Validation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale for use with adolescents. Br J Psychiatry. 1999 Nov;175:452-4

Herrmann C. International experiences with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - a review of validation data and clinical results. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 1997;42(1):17-41

Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1983;67:361-370

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Licensing

The use of the questionnaire is licensed by GL Assessment.

A license agreement must be completed beforehand and a user fee is required to all users (commercial and academic users).

Please contact:

GL Assessment Ltd.
1st Floor Vantage London
Great West Road
London TW8 9AG
United Kingdom
Email: permissions@gl-assessment.co.uk
Website: www.gl-assessment.co.uk

Distribution of Translations

Existing translations can be obtained from Mapi Research Trust:

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  3. In order to accelerate the process, you may attach the Request for Translations form, or any other document to your online request
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Contact and conditions of use

Contact information

Mapi Research Trust
PROVIDE™
27 rue de la Villette
69003 Lyon
France
Phone: +33 (0)4 72 13 66 66

Conditions of use

Licensing

The use of the questionnaire is licensed by GL Assessment.

A license agreement must be completed beforehand and a user fee is required to all users (commercial and academic users).

Please contact:

GL Assessment Ltd.
1st Floor Vantage London
Great West Road
London TW8 9AG
United Kingdom
Email: permissions@gl-assessment.co.uk
Website: www.gl-assessment.co.uk

Distribution of Translations

Existing translations can be obtained from Mapi Research Trust:

  1. Log in or Register for free
  2. Submit your request (Tutorials are available on our FAQs)
  3. In order to accelerate the process, you may attach the Request for Translations form, or any other document to your online request
  4. Our PROVIDE team will get back to you with the needed information in a timely manner

 

Electronic application of the questionnaire:

For the electronic application of the questionnaire, specific conditions apply.

Please consult GL Assessment directly for additional information and to sign a specific license.

Review copy

Examination copies can only be used for the limited purpose of examining the suitability of the Questionnaire for subsequent research and/or clinical use, and cannot be used in research or in clinical practice or distributed to others.
You are not authorized to modify, retype, translate, copy or otherwise duplicate the Questionnaire except with the further and prior written permission of Mapi Research Trust / the developers / copyright holders / distributors.

Please contact GL Assessment Ltd

Languages

Original language(s)

  • English for the UK

Translations

The listed translations may not have undergone a full linguistic validation process and may require further work to be suitable for use in a study. This list is subject to constant changes, therefore please check the status of translations with Mapi Research Trust / the developers / copyright holders / distributors.

HADS

Afrikaans for South Africa*
Albanian for Albania
Arabic for Dubai*
Arabic for Egypt*
Arabic for Israel*
Arabic for Lebanon
Arabic for Morocco*
Arabic for Saudi Arabia*
Arabic for Tunisia*
Arabic for the United Arab Emirates*
Bengali for India*
Bosnian for Bosnia*
Bulgarian for Bulgaria*
Cantonese for Hong Kong*
Cebuano for Philippines - Davao
Cebuano for the Philippines*
Croatian for Croatia*
Czech for Czech Republic*
Danish for Denmark*
Dutch for Belgium (Flemish)*
Dutch for the Netherlands*
English for Australia*
English for Canada*
English for Hong Kong
English for India*
English for Malaysia*
English for New Zealand*
English for Pakistan*
English for Singapore*
English for South Africa*
English for the Philippines*
English for the USA*
Estonian for Estonia*
Farsi for Iran*
Filipino for the Philippines*
Finnish for Finland*
French for Belgium*
French for Canada*
French for France*
French for Morocco*
French for Switzerland*
French for Tunisia*
Georgian for Georgia*
German for Austria
German for Germany
German for Switzerland
Greek for Greece*
Gujarati for India*
Hebrew for Israel*
Hindi for India*
Hungarian for Hungary*
Icelandic for Iceland
Ilocano for the Philippines*
Indonesian for Indonesia*
Italian for Italy*
Italian for Switzerland*
Japanese for Japan*
Kannada for India*
Korean for Korea*
Latvian for Latvia*
Lithuanian for Lithuania*
Malay for Malaysia*
Malay for Singapore*
Malayalam for India*
Maltese for Malta*
Mandarin for China*
Mandarin for Hong-Kong
Mandarin for Malaysia*
Mandarin for Singapore*
Mandarin for Taiwan*
Marathi for India*
Norwegian for Norway*
Polish for Poland*
Portuguese for Brazil*
Portuguese for Portugal*
Punjabi for India*
Romanian for Romania*
Russian for Belarus*
Russian for Estonia*
Russian for Georgia*
Russian for Israel*
Russian for Latvia*
Russian for Lithuania*
Russian for Russia*
Russian for Ukraine*
Serbian for Serbia*
Sesotho for South Africa*
Sinhalese for Sri Lanka
Slovak for Slovakia*
Slovenian for Slovenia*
Spanish for Argentina*
Spanish for Chile*
Spanish for Colombia*
Spanish for Costa Rica*
Spanish for Mexico*
Spanish for Panama*
Spanish for Peru*
Spanish for Puerto Rico*
Spanish for South America
Spanish for Spain*
Spanish for the USA*
Swedish for Finland*
Swedish for Sweden*
Tagalog for the Philippines*
Tamil for India*
Tamil for Malaysia*
Tamil for Singapore*
Telugu for India*
Thai for Thailand*
Turkish for Turkey*
Ukrainian for Ukraine*
Urdu for India*
Welsh for Wales
Xhosa for South Africa*
Yoruba for Nigeria
Zulu for South Africa*
* Performed by Mapi

Note: The copyright in the German version of the HADS is held by Verlag Hans Huber (contact Sylvia Schlutius or Daniel Ebneter, CEO), Bern, Switzerland. Additional information on: http://www.testzentrale.de/

BiblioPRO: you can find information about the Spanish version here - puede encontrar información sobre la versión española aqui

The author has selected Mapi/ICON Language Services as exclusive linguistic validation company to ensure the production of harmonized and consistent language versions.

For additional information on available translations of this instrument, or for a project involving new languages, please submit a request (tutorials available on our FAQs).

Conditions to translate

Academic Translation

If you wish to translate the questionnaire:

  1. Log in or Register for free
  2. Submit your request for translation online (Tutorials are available on our FAQs)
  3. Our PROVIDE team will send you a translation agreement along with Linguistic Validation Guidelines.

Commercial Users

Exclusive vendor for translation work for commercial users: Mapi/ICON Language Services

More information on translations

Bibliographic references of the Arabic translation:

El-Rufaie OE, Absood GH. Retesting the validity of the Arabic version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HADS) scale in primary health care. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1995 Jan;30(1):26-31

El-Rufaie, O.E.F. and Absood, G.H. Re-testing the validity of the Arabic version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HADS) Scale in primary health care. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 1995; 30, 26-31.

Malasi TH, Mirza IA, el-Islam MF. Validation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in Arab patients. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1991 Oct;84(4):323-6

El-Rufaie, O.E.F.A. and Absood, G. (1987). Validity Study of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale among a Group of Saudi Patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 678-688

Bibliographic references of the Chinese translation:

Leung CM, Wing YK, Kwong PK et al. Validation of the Chinese-Cantonese version of the hospital anxiety and depression scale and comparison with the Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1999 Dec;100(6):456-61

Leung CM, Ho S, Kan CS et al. Evaluation of the Chinese version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A cross-cultural perspective. Int J Psychosom. 1993;40(1-4):29-34

Bibliographic reference of the German translation:

Herrmann C, Scholz KH, Kreuzer H. [Psychologic screening of patients of a cardiologic acute care clinic with the German version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale]. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol. 1991 Feb;41(2):83-92. In German

For information on, or permission to use the German translation, please contact:

Verlag Hans Huber (contact Sibylle Galliker)
Langgasstrasse 76
CH-3000
Berlin 9
Germany
Phone: 00 41 (0) 31 300 4587
Fax: 00 41 (0) 31 300 4590
E-mail: sibylle.galliker@hanshuber.com

Bibliographic reference of the Greek translation:

Chatzitheodorou D, Kabitsis C, Papadopoulos NG, Galanopoulou V. Assessing disability in patients with rheumatic diseases: translation, reliability and validity testing of a Greek version of the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ). Rheumatol Int. 2008 Sep;28(11):1091-7. Epub 2008 Apr 26

Bibliographic reference of the Hungarian translation:

Muszbek K, Szekely A, Balogh EM, Molnár M, Rohánszky M, Ruzsa A, Varga K, Szöllosi M, Vadász P. Validation of the Hungarian translation of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Qual Life Res. 2006 May;15(4):761-6

Bibliographic reference of the Iranian translation:

Montazeri A, Vahdaninia M, Ebrahimi M, Jarvandi S. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): translation and validation study of the Iranian version. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2003 Apr 28;1(1):14 (Full text article)

Bibliographic reference of the Italian translation:

Costantini M, Musso M, Viterbori P, et al. Detecting psychological distress in cancer patients validity of the Italian version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Support Care Cancer. 1999 May;7(3):121-7

Bibliographic reference of the Malayalam translation:

Thomas BC, Devi N, Sarita GP, Rita K, Ramdas K, Hussain BM, Rejnish R, Pandey  M. Reliability & validity of the Malayalam hospital anxiety & depression scale (HADS) in cancer patients. Indian J Med Res. 2005 Nov;122(5):395-9

Bibliographic reference of the Nigerian translation:

Abiodun OA.A validity study of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in general hospital units and a community sample in Nigeria. Br J Psychiatry. 1994 Nov;165(5):669-72

Bibliographic reference of the Norwegian translation:

Mykletun A, Stordal E, Dahl AA. Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale: factor structure, item analyses and internal consistency in a large population. Br J Psychiatry. 2001 Dec;179:540-4 (Full text article)

Bibliographic reference of the Portuguese translation:

Pais-Ribeiro J, Silva I, Ferreira T, Martins A, Meneses R, Baltar M. Validation study of a Portuguese version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Psychol Health Med. 2007 Mar;12(2):225-35; quiz 235-7. English, Portuguese

Bibliographic reference of the Slovenian translation:

Miklavcic IV, Snoj Z, Mlakar J, Pregelj P. Validation of the Slovenian version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in female cancer patients. Psychiatr Danub. 2008 Jun;20(2):148-52

Bibliographic reference of the Swedish translation:

Lisspers J, Nygren A, Soderman E. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS): some psychometric data for a Swedish sample. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1997 Oct;96(4):281-6

Bibliographic reference of the Urdu translation:

Mumford DB, Tareen IA, Bajwa MA, et al. The translation and evaluation of an Urdu version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 1991 Feb;83(2):81-5

Bibliographic reference of the Malay translation:

Thomas BC, Devi N, Sarita GP, Rita K, Ramdas K, Hussain BM, Rejnish R, Pandey M. Reliability & validity of the Malayalam hospital anxiety & depression scale (HADS) in cancer patients. Indian J Med Res. 2005 Nov;122(5):395-9

Bibliographic reference of the Punjabi translation:

Lane DA, Jajoo J, Taylor RS, Lip GY, Jolly K; the Birmingham Rehabilitation Uptake Maximisation (BRUM) Steering Committee. Cross-cultural adaptation into Punjabi of the English version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. BMC Psychiatry. 2007 Jan 26;7:5

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