Oswestry Disability Index (ODI)

Fairbank J

Distributed by Mapi Research Trust


Distributed by Mapi Research Trust

Basic description

  • Developed in 1980

WEBINAR : An Author Webinar on the Oswestry Disability Index - Recorded session available here!


Fairbank J

ODI © Jeremy Fairbank, 1980. All Rights Reserved.
To indicate the extent to which a person’s functional level is restricted by disability
Therapeutic area
  • Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms
  • Nervous System Diseases
  • Wounds and Injuries
  • Rare disease (Orphanet definition)
Therapeutic indication
  • Back Pain
  • Spinal Cord Diseases
  • Spinal Cord Injuries For more information on this rare disease, please consult the following link: Orphanet page
Type of Clinical Outcome Assessment (COA)
  • pro PRO
Original language(s)
  • English for the UK
Bibliographic reference(s) of the original questionnaire

Fairbank JC, Pynsent PB. The Oswestry Disability Index. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2000 Nov 15;25(22):2940-52; discussion 2952. (PubMed Abstract)

Baker DJ, Pynsent PB and Fairbank JCT (1989) The Oswestry Disability revisited. In Roland Jenner JR (eds) Back pain: New approaches to rehabilitation and education. Manchester University Press.pp174-186

Fairbank JCT, Couper J, Davies JB, O’Brien JP. The Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire. Physiotherapy. 1980;66:271-273

Stokes OM. Answer to the Letter to the Editor of L. Denteneer et al. concerning "Do we have the right PROMs for measuring outcomes in lumbar spinal surgery?" by O.M. Stokes et al., Eur Spine J (2017) 26:816-824

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Contact and conditions of use


Fairbank J

Professor of Spine Surgery
University of Oxford
Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre
Windmill Road
Oxford OX3 7HE
Phone: +44 (0)1865 741155
E-mail: jeremy.fairbank@ndorms.ox.ac.uk

Jeremy Fairbank Publications (PubMed)

Contact information

Mapi Research Trust
27 rue de la Villette
69003 Lyon
Phone: +33 (0)4 72 13 66 66

Conditions of use

Please note that, since its development in 1980s, the questionnaire underwent several modifications and thus, different versions are available (1.0, 2.0, 2.1, 2.1a, 2.1b, MODEMS, chiropractor version…). However, the author recommends that for any new study, the original 2.1b ODI must be used.

Students, physicians, clinical practice, not-funded academic users

You may access the questionnaire and/or its available translations directly (see tutorial). Should you not see the Download button, please contact us.

Funded academic users, healthcare organizations, commercial users & IT companies

Fees may apply to your project. Submit your request (see tutorial). Our PROVIDE team will get back to you with the needed information and license agreement in a timely manner.

Author Website(s)

Review copy

Examination copies can only be used for the limited purpose of examining the suitability of the Questionnaire for subsequent research and/or clinical use, and cannot be used in research or in clinical practice or distributed to others.
You are not authorized to modify, retype, translate, copy or otherwise duplicate the Questionnaire except with the further and prior written permission of Mapi Research Trust / the developers / copyright holders / distributors.

Please note that, since its development in 1980s, the questionnaire underwent several modifications and thus, different versions are available (1.0, 2.0, 2.1, 2.1a, 2.1b MODEMS, chiropractor version…). However, the author recommends that for any new study, the original 2.1b ODI must be used.


Original language(s)

  • English for the UK


The list of available translations is subject to constant changes and may not be exhaustive. It is provided for information only. Some recently produced translations may not be included in the list below yet. Please do check the status of available translations with Mapi Research Trust / the developers / copyright holders / distributors.

Also, the listed translations may not have undergone a full linguistic validation process and may require further work to be suitable for use in a study.


Albanian for Albania
Arabic for Egypt*
Arabic for Kuwait*
Arabic for Saudi Arabia*
Arabic for Tunisia
Bengali for Bangladesh
Bulgarian for Bulgaria*
Chinese for Taiwan
Croatian for Croatia
Czech for Czech Republic*
Danish for Denmark*
Dutch for the Netherlands*
English for Australia* L
English for Canada*
English for Singapore*
English for the USA*
Estonian for Estonia*
Filipino for the Philippines
Finnish for Finland*
French for Belgium*
French for Canada*
French for France*
French for Switzerland*
Georgian for Georgia*
German for Austria*
German for Germany*
German for Switzerland*
Greek for Greece*
Hebrew for Israel*
Hindi for India
Hungarian for Hungary*
Icelandic for Iceland
Indonesian for Indonesia
Italian for Italy*
Italian for Switzerland*
Japanese for Japan*
Kannada for India
Korean for South Korea*
Latvian for Latvia*
Lithuanian for Lithuania*
Malay for Malaysia
Malay for Singapore*
Malayalam for India
Maltese for Malta*
Mandarin for China*
Mandarin for Singapore*
Mandarin for Taiwan*
Marathi for India
Nepalese for Nepal
Nepali for Nepal
Norwegian for Norway*
Polish for Poland*
Portuguese for Brazil*
Portuguese for Portugal*
Romanian for Romania*
Russian for Estonia*
Russian for Israel*
Russian for Latvia*
Russian for Lithuania*
Russian for Russia*
Serbian for Serbia*
Sinhalese for Sri Lanka
Slovak for Slovakia*
Spanish for Argentina*
Spanish for Colombia*
Spanish for Mexico*
Spanish for Spain*
Spanish for the USA*
Swahili for Tanzania
Swedish for Sweden*
Tamil for India*
Thai for Thailand
Turkish for Turkey*
Urdu for Pakistan


Dutch for Belgium (Flemish)* L
French for France* L
Ukrainian for Ukraine
* Performed by Mapi

BiblioPRO: you can find information about the Spanish version here - puede encontrar información sobre la versión española aqui

The official original ODI version to be used is now ODI2.1b.

All existing translations are currently based on the original version of the ODI 2.1a and will soon be updated. For now, translations ODI2.1a can be used.

The author has selected Mapi/ICON Language Services as exclusive linguistic validation company to ensure the production of harmonized and consistent language versions.

For additional information on available translations of this instrument, or for a project involving new languages, please submit a request (tutorials available on our FAQs).

Conditions to translate

Academic Translation

If you wish to translate the questionnaire:

  1. Log in or Register for free
  2. Submit your request for translation online (Tutorials are available on our FAQs)
  3. Our PROVIDE team will send you a translation agreement along with Linguistic Validation Guidelines.

Commercial Users

Exclusive vendor for translation work for commercial users: Mapi/ICON Language Services

More information on translations

Bibliographic references of the translations:

Liu H, Tao H, Luo Z. Validation of the simplified Chinese version of the Oswestry Disability Index. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 May 15;34(11):1211-6; discussion 1217 (PubMed abstract)
Lue YJ, Hsieh CL, Huang MH, Lin GT, Lu YM. Development of a Chinese version of the Oswestry Disability Index version 2.1. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008 Oct 1;33(21):2354-60 (PubMed abstract)
Comins J, Brodersen J, Wedderkopp N, Lassen MR, Shakir H, Specht K, Brorson S, Christensen KB. Psychometric Validation of the Danish Version of the Oswestry Disability Index in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2020 Aug 15;45(16):1143-1150 (PubMed abstract)
Lauridsen HH, Hartvigsen J, Manniche C, Korsholm L, Grunnet-Nilsson N. Danish version of the Oswestry Disability Index for patients with low back pain. Part 1: Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity in two different populations. Eur Spine J. 2006 Nov;15(11):1705-16 (PubMed abstract)
Dutch for the Netherlands:
van Hooff ML, Spruit M, Fairbank JC, van Limbeek J, Jacobs WC. The Oswestry Disability Index (version 2.1a): validation of a Dutch language version. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Jan 15;40(2):E83-90 (PubMed abstract)
English and Marathi for India:
Joshi VD, Raiturker PP, Kulkarni AA. Validity and reliability of English and Marathi Oswestry Disability Index (version 2.1a) in Indian population. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 May 15;38(11):E662-8 (PubMed abstract)
Pekkanen L, Kautiainen H, Ylinen J, Salo P, Häkkinen A. Reliability and validity study of the Finnish version 2.0 of the oswestry disability index. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Feb 15;36(4):332-8 (PubMed abstract)
French for Canada:
Denis I, Fortin L. Development of a French-Canadian version of the Oswestry Disability Index: cross-cultural adaptation and validation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Apr 1;37(7):E439-44 (PubMed abstract)
French for Switzerland:
Vogler D, Paillex R, Norberg M, de Goumoëns P, Cabri J. Validation transculturelle de l'Oswestry disability index en français [Cross-cultural validation of the Oswestry disability index in French]. Ann Readapt Med Phys. 2008 Jun;51(5):379-85. French (PubMed abstract)
German for Germany:
Osthus H, Cziske R, Jacobi E. Cross-cultural adaptation of a German version of the Oswestry Disability Index and evaluation of its measurement properties. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006 Jun 15;31(14):E448-53 (PubMed abstract)
German for Switzerland:
Mannion AF, Junge A, Fairbank JC, Dvorak J, Grob D. Development of a German version of the Oswestry Disability Index. Part 1: cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity. Eur Spine J. 2006 Jan;15(1):55-65 (Full text article)
Hausa for Nigeria:
Adamu AS, Ibrahim AA, Ahmad RY, Akindele MO, Kaka B, Mukhtar NB. Cross- cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Hausa Version of the Oswestry Disability Index 2.1a for Patients With Low Back Pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2019 Sep;44(18):E1092-E1102 (PubMed abstract)
Gamus D, Glasser S, Langner E, Beth-Hakimian A, Caspi I, Carmel N, Siev-Ner I, Amir H, Ziv A, Papa M, Lerner-Geva L. Psychometric properties of the Hebrew version of the Oswestry Disability Index. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2016 Jun 17. doi: 10.3233/BMR-160726. Epub ahead of print (PubMed abstract)
Valasek T, Varga PP, Szövérfi Z, Kümin M, Fairbank J, Lazary A. Reliability and validity study on the Hungarian versions of the oswestry disability index and the Quebec back pain disability scale. Eur Spine J. 2013 May;22(5):1010-8 (Full text article)
Kim DY, Lee SH, Lee HY, Lee HJ, Chang SB, Chung SK, Kim HJ. Validation of the Korean version of the oswestry disability index. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005 Mar 1;30(5):E123-7 (PubMed abstract)
Mousavi SJ, Parnianpour M, Mehdian H, Montazeri A, Mobini B. The Oswestry Disability Index, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, and the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale: translation and validation studies of the Iranian versions. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006 Jun 15;31(14):E454-9 (PubMed abstract)
Baradaran A, Ebrahimzadeh MH, Birjandinejad A, Kachooei AR. Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Validation, and Reliability Testing of the Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire in Persian Population with Low Back Pain. Asian Spine J. 2016 Apr;10(2):215-9 (Full text article)
Miekisiak G, Kollataj M, Dobrogowski J, Kloc W, Libionka W, Banach M, Latka D, Sobolewski T, Sulewski A, Nowakowski A, Kiwic G, Pala A, Potaczek T, Gierlotka M. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Polish version of the Oswestry Disability Index. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Feb 15;38(4):E237-43 (PubMed abstract)
Yu EM, Nosova EV, Falkenstein Y, Prasad P, Leasure JM, Kondrashov DG. Validation of a Russian Language Oswestry Disability Index Questionnaire. Global Spine J. 2016 Nov;6(7):636-639 (Full text article)
Spanish for Colombia:
Payares K, Lugo LH, Morales V, Londoño A. Validation in Colombia of the Oswestry disability questionnaire in patients with low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Dec 15;36(26):E1730-5 (PubMed abstract)
Spanish for Spain:
Selva-Sevilla C, Ferrara P, Gerónimo-Pardo M. Psychometric Properties Study of the Oswestry Disability Index in a Spanish Population With Previous Lumbar Disc Surgery: Homogeneity and Validity. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2019 Apr 1;44(7):E430-E437 (PubMed abstract)
Vincent JI, Macdermid JC, Grewal R, Sekar VP, Balachandran D. Translation of oswestry disability index into Tamil with cross cultural adaptation and evaluation of reliability and validity(§). Open Orthop J. 2014 Jan 24;8:11-9 (Full text article)
Yoruba for Nigeria:
Aiyegbusi AI, Akodu AK, Agbede EO. Reliability and validity of the Yoruba version of the Oswestry disability index. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2017 Apr- Jun;24(2):103-106 (PubMed abstract)


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