Distributed by Mapi Research Trust
Distributed by Mapi Research Trust
WEBINAR : An Author Webinar on the Oswestry Disability Index - Recorded session available here!
Fairbank JC, Pynsent PB. The Oswestry Disability Index. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2000 Nov 15;25(22):2940-52; discussion 2952. (PubMed Abstract)
Baker DJ, Pynsent PB and Fairbank JCT (1989) The Oswestry Disability revisited. In Roland Jenner JR (eds) Back pain: New approaches to rehabilitation and education. Manchester University Press.pp174-186
Fairbank JCT, Couper J, Davies JB, O’Brien JP. The Oswestry Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire. Physiotherapy. 1980;66:271-273
Stokes OM. Answer to the Letter to the Editor of L. Denteneer et al. concerning "Do we have the right PROMs for measuring outcomes in lumbar spinal surgery?" by O.M. Stokes et al., Eur Spine J (2017) 26:816-824
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Please note that, since its development in 1980s, the questionnaire underwent several modifications and thus, different versions are available (1.0, 2.0, 2.1, 2.1a, 2.1b, MODEMS, chiropractor version…). However, the author recommends that for any new study, the original 2.1b ODI must be used.
Fees may apply to your project. Submit your request (see tutorial). Our PROVIDE team will get back to you with the needed information and license agreement in a timely manner.
Examination copies can only be used for the limited purpose of examining the suitability of the Questionnaire for subsequent research and/or clinical use, and cannot be used in research or in clinical practice or distributed to others.
You are not authorized to modify, retype, translate, copy or otherwise duplicate the Questionnaire except with the further and prior written permission of Mapi Research Trust / the developers / copyright holders / distributors.
Please note that, since its development in 1980s, the questionnaire underwent several modifications and thus, different versions are available (1.0, 2.0, 2.1, 2.1a, 2.1b MODEMS, chiropractor version…). However, the author recommends that for any new study, the original 2.1b ODI must be used.
The list of available translations is subject to constant changes and may not be exhaustive. It is provided for information only. Some recently produced translations may not be included in the list below yet. Please do check the status of available translations with Mapi Research Trust / the developers / copyright holders / distributors.
Also, the listed translations may not have undergone a full linguistic validation process and may require further work to be suitable for use in a study.
The official original ODI version to be used is now ODI2.1b.
All existing translations are currently based on the original version of the ODI 2.1a and will soon be updated. For now, translations ODI2.1a can be used.
The author has selected Mapi/ICON Language Services as exclusive linguistic validation company to ensure the production of harmonized and consistent language versions.
For additional information on available translations of this instrument, or for a project involving new languages, please submit a request (tutorials available on our FAQs).
Liu H, Tao H, Luo Z. Validation of the simplified Chinese version of the Oswestry Disability Index. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 May 15;34(11):1211-6; discussion 1217 (PubMed abstract)
Lue YJ, Hsieh CL, Huang MH, Lin GT, Lu YM. Development of a Chinese version of the Oswestry Disability Index version 2.1. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2008 Oct 1;33(21):2354-60 (PubMed abstract)
Comins J, Brodersen J, Wedderkopp N, Lassen MR, Shakir H, Specht K, Brorson S, Christensen KB. Psychometric Validation of the Danish Version of the Oswestry Disability Index in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2020 Aug 15;45(16):1143-1150 (PubMed abstract)
Lauridsen HH, Hartvigsen J, Manniche C, Korsholm L, Grunnet-Nilsson N. Danish version of the Oswestry Disability Index for patients with low back pain. Part 1: Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity in two different populations. Eur Spine J. 2006 Nov;15(11):1705-16 (PubMed abstract)
Dutch for the Netherlands:
van Hooff ML, Spruit M, Fairbank JC, van Limbeek J, Jacobs WC. The Oswestry Disability Index (version 2.1a): validation of a Dutch language version. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2015 Jan 15;40(2):E83-90 (PubMed abstract)
English and Marathi for India:
Joshi VD, Raiturker PP, Kulkarni AA. Validity and reliability of English and Marathi Oswestry Disability Index (version 2.1a) in Indian population. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 May 15;38(11):E662-8 (PubMed abstract)
Pekkanen L, Kautiainen H, Ylinen J, Salo P, Häkkinen A. Reliability and validity study of the Finnish version 2.0 of the oswestry disability index. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Feb 15;36(4):332-8 (PubMed abstract)
French for Canada:
Denis I, Fortin L. Development of a French-Canadian version of the Oswestry Disability Index: cross-cultural adaptation and validation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 Apr 1;37(7):E439-44 (PubMed abstract)
French for Switzerland:
Vogler D, Paillex R, Norberg M, de Goumoëns P, Cabri J. Validation transculturelle de l'Oswestry disability index en français [Cross-cultural validation of the Oswestry disability index in French]. Ann Readapt Med Phys. 2008 Jun;51(5):379-85. French (PubMed abstract)
German for Germany:
Osthus H, Cziske R, Jacobi E. Cross-cultural adaptation of a German version of the Oswestry Disability Index and evaluation of its measurement properties. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006 Jun 15;31(14):E448-53 (PubMed abstract)
German for Switzerland:
Mannion AF, Junge A, Fairbank JC, Dvorak J, Grob D. Development of a German version of the Oswestry Disability Index. Part 1: cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity. Eur Spine J. 2006 Jan;15(1):55-65 (Full text article)
Hausa for Nigeria:
Adamu AS, Ibrahim AA, Ahmad RY, Akindele MO, Kaka B, Mukhtar NB. Cross- cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Hausa Version of the Oswestry Disability Index 2.1a for Patients With Low Back Pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2019 Sep;44(18):E1092-E1102 (PubMed abstract)
Gamus D, Glasser S, Langner E, Beth-Hakimian A, Caspi I, Carmel N, Siev-Ner I, Amir H, Ziv A, Papa M, Lerner-Geva L. Psychometric properties of the Hebrew version of the Oswestry Disability Index. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2016 Jun 17. doi: 10.3233/BMR-160726. Epub ahead of print (PubMed abstract)
Valasek T, Varga PP, Szövérfi Z, Kümin M, Fairbank J, Lazary A. Reliability and validity study on the Hungarian versions of the oswestry disability index and the Quebec back pain disability scale. Eur Spine J. 2013 May;22(5):1010-8 (Full text article)
Kim DY, Lee SH, Lee HY, Lee HJ, Chang SB, Chung SK, Kim HJ. Validation of the Korean version of the oswestry disability index. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2005 Mar 1;30(5):E123-7 (PubMed abstract)
Mousavi SJ, Parnianpour M, Mehdian H, Montazeri A, Mobini B. The Oswestry Disability Index, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, and the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale: translation and validation studies of the Iranian versions. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006 Jun 15;31(14):E454-9 (PubMed abstract)
Baradaran A, Ebrahimzadeh MH, Birjandinejad A, Kachooei AR. Cross-Cultural Adaptation, Validation, and Reliability Testing of the Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire in Persian Population with Low Back Pain. Asian Spine J. 2016 Apr;10(2):215-9 (Full text article)
Miekisiak G, Kollataj M, Dobrogowski J, Kloc W, Libionka W, Banach M, Latka D, Sobolewski T, Sulewski A, Nowakowski A, Kiwic G, Pala A, Potaczek T, Gierlotka M. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Polish version of the Oswestry Disability Index. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2013 Feb 15;38(4):E237-43 (PubMed abstract)
Yu EM, Nosova EV, Falkenstein Y, Prasad P, Leasure JM, Kondrashov DG. Validation of a Russian Language Oswestry Disability Index Questionnaire. Global Spine J. 2016 Nov;6(7):636-639 (Full text article)
Spanish for Colombia:
Payares K, Lugo LH, Morales V, Londoño A. Validation in Colombia of the Oswestry disability questionnaire in patients with low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2011 Dec 15;36(26):E1730-5 (PubMed abstract)
Spanish for Spain:
Selva-Sevilla C, Ferrara P, Gerónimo-Pardo M. Psychometric Properties Study of the Oswestry Disability Index in a Spanish Population With Previous Lumbar Disc Surgery: Homogeneity and Validity. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2019 Apr 1;44(7):E430-E437 (PubMed abstract)
Vincent JI, Macdermid JC, Grewal R, Sekar VP, Balachandran D. Translation of oswestry disability index into Tamil with cross cultural adaptation and evaluation of reliability and validity(§). Open Orthop J. 2014 Jan 24;8:11-9 (Full text article)
Yoruba for Nigeria:
Aiyegbusi AI, Akodu AK, Agbede EO. Reliability and validity of the Yoruba version of the Oswestry disability index. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2017 Apr- Jun;24(2):103-106 (PubMed abstract)