SF-36 Health Survey (SF-36® / SF-36v2®)

Ware JE; Sherbourne CD


Basic description

  • The SF-36v1® was developed in 1990
  • The SF-36v2® (version currently in use) was developed in 1998
  • The short form (SF-12®) was developed in 1996
  • The SF-36 is the most frequently used PRO instrument in clinical trials today

Ware JE; Sherbourne CD

SF-36v2® Health Survey © 1996, 2004, 2010 Medical Outcomes Trust and QualityMetric Incorporated. All rights reserved.
SF-36® is a registered trademark of Medical Outcomes Trust.

The SF-36 was developed during the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) to measure generic health concepts relevant across age, disease, and treatment groups
Therapeutic area
  • Generic
Therapeutic indication


Type of Clinical Outcome Assessment (COA)
  • pro PRO
Original language(s)
  • English for the USA
191 translation(s)
Bibliographic reference(s) of the original questionnaire

Ware J, Kosinski M, Bjorner J, Turner-Bowker D, Gandek B, Maruish M. Development. User's Manual for the SF-36v2® Health Survey. Lincoln (RI): QualityMetric Incorporated; 2007.

McHorney CA, Ware JE Jr, Lu JF, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): III. Tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability across diverse patient groups. Med Care. 1994 Jan;32(1):40-66 (PubMed abstract)

McHorney CA, Ware JE Jr, Raczek AE. The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): II. Psychometric and clinical tests of validity in measuring physical and mental health constructs. Med Care. 1993 Mar;31(3):247-63 (PubMed abstract)

Ware JE Jr, Sherbourne CD. The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). I. Conceptual framework and item selection. Med Care. 1992 Jun;30(6):473-83 (PubMed abstract)

Brazier JE, Harper R, Jones NM, O'Cathain A, Thomas KJ, Usherwood T, Westlake L. Validating the SF-36 health survey questionnaire: new outcome measure for primary care. BMJ. 1992 Jul 18; 305(6846):160-4. (PubMed Abstract)

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